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嘿兄弟,澳大利亚牧羊犬了解一下?

发布日期:2019-09-01 10:09:37 编辑:养宠物网阅读次数:

注:该标准中文版翻译自FCI国际纯种犬标准英文版,已发布于CKU官网-犬种百科

05.06.2009 / EN

FCI-国际纯种犬标准第 342 号

AUSTRALIAN SHEPHERD

澳大利亚牧羊犬

本图片来自AKC官网

并不一定代表该犬种的理想例子

ORIGIN: U.S.A.

起源:美国

Date of acceptance on a definitive basis by the FCI: 21.05.2007.

FCI正式认可日期:2007年5月21日

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE OFFICIAL VALID STANDARD: 26.03.2009.

正式生效标准发布日期:2009年3月26日

UTILIZATION: Farm and ranch shepherd dog.

用途:农场和牧场用牧羊犬

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FCI-CLASSIFICATION:

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Group 1 Sheepdogs and Cattle dogs (except Swiss Cattle dogs)

Section 1 Sheepdogs

Without working trial.

FCI分组:

第1组:牧羊犬和牧牛犬(除瑞士牧牛犬)

第1类:牧羊犬

无需工作犬测试

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

While there are many theories as to the origin of the Australian Shepherd, the breed as we know it today developed exclusively in the United States. The Australian Shepherd was given its name because of the association with Basque Sheepherders who came to the United States from Australia in the 1800’s.

The Australian Shepherd’s popularity rose steadily with the boom of western horseback riding after World War II, which became known to the general public via rodeos, horse shows, movies, and television shows. Their inherent versatile and trainable personality made them assets to American farms and ranches. The American stockman continued the development of the breed, maintaining its versatility, keen intelligence, strong herding instincts, and eye-catching appearance that originally won their admiration.

Although each individual is unique in colour and markings, all Australian Shepherds show an unsurpassed devotion to their families. Their many attributes have guaranteed the Australian Shepherd’s continued popularity.

历史沿革:

关于澳大利亚牧羊犬起源的说法不一,现如今我们所知的该犬种是从美国发展起来的。之所以被称作澳大利亚牧羊犬,是因为它与19世纪从澳大利亚来到美国的巴斯克牧羊人相关。

二战后,随着西部骑马的盛行,澳大利亚牧羊犬也随之兴起,该犬种经由牛仔竞技表演,马展,电影和电视节目逐渐被大众所知。澳大利亚牧羊犬与生俱来的多用途性和易训练的特质,使它成为农场和牧场极具价值的资产。美国的畜牧业者不断地发展此犬种,并保持其多用途性、聪慧的秉性、强大的牧羊本能和最初为他赢得赞美的引人注目的外形。

虽然每只澳牧无论在颜色还是斑纹上都独一无二,但所有的澳牧都展示出了他们对家庭的无比卓越的忠诚和奉献。他们身上的很多特质都令该犬种一直非常受欢迎。

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

The Australian Shepherd is well balanced, slightly longer than tall, of medium size and bone, with colouring that offers variety and individuality.

He is attentive and animated, lithe and agile, solid and muscular without cloddiness. He has a coat of moderate length and coarseness. He has a docked or natural tail.

整体外貌:

澳大利亚牧羊犬体形匀称,体长比身高略长,体形和骨骼中等,毛色富于多样性和个性。

该犬种专心而活泼,柔软而敏捷,结实强健但不笨拙。被毛长度适中且粗糙。断尾或自然尾。

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

Measuring from the breastbone to rear of thigh and from top of the withers to the ground the Australian Shepherd is slightly longer than tall.

Solidly built with moderate bone. Structure in the male reflects masculinity without coarseness. Bitches appear feminine without being slight of bone.

重要比例:

从胸骨至大腿后部的长度比从肩隆顶端至地面的长度略长。澳牧体长比身高略长。身体结实,骨量适中。公犬身体结构反映出公犬特征,但不粗犷。母犬具有母犬特征,但骨量并无减少。

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:

The Australian Shepherd is an intelligent working dog of strong herding and guarding instincts. He is a loyal companion and has the stamina to work all day. With an even disposition, he is good natured, seldom quarrelsome. He may be somewhat reserved in initial meetings.

行为/秉性:

澳大利亚牧羊犬是一种聪明的工作犬种,拥有强大的牧羊本领和看守能力。他是忠诚的伙伴,精力充沛,可以工作一整天。性情平和,温厚,几乎不争斗。初次见面时该犬种可能态度冷淡。

HEAD: 头部

CRANIAL REGION: 颅部区域

HEAD:The head is clean cut, strong and dry. Overall size should be in proportion to the body.

头部:轮廓清晰,有力且干燥。整体大小与身体成比例。

Skull: Top flat to slightly domed. It may show a slight occipital protuberance. Length and width are equal.

头骨:头顶扁平,略呈球形。枕骨略隆起。长宽相等。

Stop: Moderate, well-defined.

额段:适中,明显。

FACIAL REGION: 面部区域

Nose: Blue merles and blacks have black pigmentation on the nose (and lips). Red merles and reds have liver (brown) pigmentation on the nose (and lips). On the merles it is permissible to have small pink spots; however, they should not exceed 25 % of the nose on dogs over one year of age, which is a serious fault.

鼻:蓝陨石色和黑色的犬只,鼻为黑色(嘴唇也是)。红陨石色和红色的犬只鼻为深赤褐色(棕色)(嘴唇也是)。对于陨石色的犬只,允许鼻部有粉色小点,但是一岁以上的犬只,粉色小点面积不能超过鼻部面积的25%,否则视为严重缺陷。

Muzzle: Equal in length or slightly shorter than the back skull. Viewed from the side the topline of the back skull and muzzle form parallel planes, divided by a moderate, well-defined stop. The muzzle tapers little from base to nose and is rounded at the tip.

口吻:与后头骨等长或比后头骨略短。从侧面看,后头骨和口吻上方的轮廓线相平行,被适中且明显的额段分开。口吻从基部至鼻略微变细,尖部呈圆形。

Jaws/Teeth: A full complement of strong white teeth should meet in a scissors bite or may meet in a pincer bite.

颌/牙齿:完整而坚固的洁白牙齿,剪状咬合或钳状咬合。

Eyes: Brown, blue, amber or any variation or combination thereof, including flecks and marbling. Almond shaped, not protruding nor sunken. The blue merles and blacks have black pigmentation on eye rims. The red merles and reds have liver (brown) pigmentation on eye rims. Expression: Showing attentiveness and intelligence, alert and eager. Gaze should be keen but friendly.

眼睛:棕色、蓝色、琥珀色或任何上述颜色的变色或混合色,包括斑点和大理石花纹的颜色。杏仁状,不凸出也不凹陷。蓝陨石色和黑色犬只的眼眶为黑色。红陨石色和红色犬只的眼眶为深赤褐色(棕色)。表情:专注且聪明,警觉而热切。注视时热切而友好。

Ears: Triangular, of moderate size and leather, set high on the head. At full attention they break forward and over, or to the side as a rose ear.

耳朵:三角形,中等大小,下垂适中,位于头部较高位置。机警状态时耳部前折往复,或倾向头的侧面,如玫瑰花耳。

NECK: Strong, of moderate length, slightly arched at the crest, fitting well into the shoulders.

颈部:有力,中等长度,顶部略拱起,与肩部自然结合。

BODY: 躯干

Topline:Back straight and strong, level and firm from withers to hip joints.

背线:从肩隆至髋关节,直且强壮,水平且稳固。

Croup: Moderately sloping.

臀:适当倾斜。

Chest: Not broad, but deep with the lowest point reaching the elbow.

胸:不宽,但深,最低点可达肘部。

Ribs : Well sprung and long, neither barrel chested nor slab-sided.

肋骨:长且弯曲适当,既不是桶装胸,侧面也不扁平。

Underline and belly : Shows a moderate tuck-up.

腹线及腹部:适度向上折起。

TAIL: Straight, naturally long or naturally short. When docked (in countries where this practice is not forbidden), or naturally short, not to exceed 10 cm.

尾:直,天生长或短。若断尾(适用于不禁止断尾的国家)或天生短尾,都不应超过10厘米。

LIMBS: 四肢

FOREQUARTERS: 前躯

Shoulder : Shoulder-blades long, flat, fairly close set at the withers and well laid back. The upper arm, which should be relatively the same length as the shoulder-blade, attaches at an approximate right angle to the shoulder line with forelegs dropping straight, perpendicular to the ground.

肩:肩胛长,平,与肩隆紧密相连,后置良好。上肢与肩胛长度基本一样,与肩线几乎呈直角相连,前肢自然下垂,与地面垂直。

Legs : Straight and strong. Bone strong, oval rather than round.

四肢:直且强壮。骨骼强壮,椭圆形而非圆形。

Metacarpus (Pastern): Medium length and very slightly sloping. Front dewclaws may be removed.

掌骨(前腿系部):中等长度,略微倾斜。前狼爪可剔除。

Forefeet: Oval, compact, with close-knit, well-arched toes. Pads thick and resilient.

前足:椭圆形,紧凑,脚趾紧密且自然拱起。脚垫厚且富有弹性。

LIMBS: 四肢

HINDQUARTERS: 后躯

General appearance:

The width of the hindquarters is equal to the width of the forequarters at the shoulders.

The angulation of the pelvis and upper thigh corresponds to the angulation of the shoulder-blade and upper arm, forming an approximate right angle

整体外观:后肢的宽度等同于前肢肩部宽度。骨盆和大腿的角度与肩胛骨和上肢的角度相符,接近直角。

Stifle (Knee): Clearly defined.

膝关节:明显。

Hock joints: Moderately bent.

跗关节:适度弯曲。

Hocks:Short, perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other when viewed from the rear. No rear dewclaws.

跖骨:短,与地面成直角,从后面看,两个相互平行。后肢没有狼爪。

Hind feet: Oval, compact with close-knit, well-arched toes. Pads thick and resilient.

后足:椭圆形,紧凑,脚趾紧密且拱起。脚垫厚且富有弹性。

GAIT/MOVEMENT:

The Australian Shepherd has a smooth, free and easy gait. He exhibits great agility of movement with a well-balanced, ground covering stride. Fore-and hind legs move straight and parallel with the centre line of the body. As speed increases, the feet (front and rear) converge toward the centre line of gravity of the dog while the back remains firm and level. The Australian Shepherd must be agile and able to change direction or alter gait instantly.

步态/动态:

澳大利亚牧羊犬步态流畅、自如且轻快。动态时非常敏捷,平衡感强,跨越能力强。前后腿行进时保持竖直,并与身体中线平行。随着速度的加快,四脚(前后脚)聚拢于身体重力中心线上,背部保持稳固和水平。澳大利亚牧羊犬须敏捷,能迅速改变方向或改变步态。

COAT: 被毛

Hair: Of medium texture, straight to wavy, weather resistant and of medium length. The undercoat varies in quantity with variations in climate. Hair is short and smooth on the head, ears, front of forelegs and below the hocks. Backs of forelegs and breeches are moderately feathered. There is a moderate mane and frill, more pronounced in dogs than in bitches.

毛质:毛质中等,被毛直或呈波浪形,可抵御天气影响,中等长度。底毛在数量上随气候变化而变化。头、耳、前腿前部和系部以下部分的毛发短。鬃毛和饰毛适度,公犬比母犬的更为明显。

Colour:

Blue merle, black, red merle, red – all with or without white markings and/or tan markings, with no order of preference. The hairline of a white collar does not exceed the point of the withers at the skin.

White is acceptable on the neck (either in part or as a full collar), chest, legs, muzzle underparts, blaze on head and white extension from underpart up to four inches (10 cm), measuring from a horizontal line at the elbow.

White on the head should not predominate, and the eyes must be fully surrounded by colour and pigment. Merles characteristically

become darker with increasing age.

毛色:

蓝陨石色,黑色,红陨石色,红色——全部带或不带白色斑纹和/或棕色斑纹,没有偏爱顺序。白色围脖的发际线不得超过皮肤上的肩隆点。

颈部(部分或全部),胸部、腿部、口吻的下半部为白色是可以接受的,头上可有白斑。身体下半部白色的范围应在肘部水平线以上的4英寸(10厘米)内。

头部的白色不应为主色,眼睛周围必须有色素沉淀。陨石色会随年龄增长颜色加深。

SIZE: 尺寸

Height at the withers : The preferred height for males is 20-23 inches (51-58 cm), females 18-21 inches (46-53 cm). Quality is not to be sacrificed in favour of size.

肩高:公犬的理想高度是20-23英寸(51-58厘米),母犬为18-21英寸(46-53厘米)。大小对其品质影响不大。

FAULTS: 缺陷

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

缺陷:任何与上述各点的背离均视为缺陷,其缺陷严重性严格地与其缺陷的程度及其对犬的健康和福利的影响成比例。

SEVERE FAULTS: 严重缺陷

Prick ears and hanging ears.

Non-typical coats.

立耳和垂耳。

非典型被毛。

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS: 失格缺陷

Aggressive or overly shy

Any dog clearly showing physical of behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

Undershot. Overshot by more than 1/8 inch. Loss of contact caused by short center incisors in an otherwise correct bite shall not be judged undershot. Teeth broken or missing by accident shall not be penalized.

White body splashes in all colours, which means white on body between withers and tail, on sides between elbows and back of hindquarters.

有攻击性或过度羞怯

任何在身体和行为上明显失常的犬应视为失格。

下颚突出。上颚突出大于1/8英寸。如因中心门齿过短,导致犬齿无法闭合产生的非正确咬合,不应算作下颚突出,牙齿因事故坏掉或缺失不应罚分。

白色部分呈飞溅状掺杂至各种颜色中,是指白色部分扩大到身体肩隆至尾部处,肘部至后肢背面的侧面。

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N.B.:

Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fullydescended into the scrotum.

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typicalconformation, should be used for breeding.

注:

公犬具备两个明显正常且完全置于阴囊的睾丸

只有身体机能以及临床表现健康的,具备典型犬种结构的犬只,才可用于繁殖。

最新修订内容以黑体标注。

▲ 犬只各部位名称(FCI标准通用)

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